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Published 24 November 2022

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This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/dft-gender-pay-gap-report-and-data-2022/dft-gender-pay-gap-report-and-data-2022
Transport affects everyone – it connects us with the world and brings people together across the country. Our aim as a department is to deliver effectively for the public and organisations who rely on transport and our services. We strongly believe that representing the customers and communities we serve will enable us to provide the best possible transport system to meet their needs. This includes ensuring that as an employer, we are addressing the gender pay gap (GPG).
Over the last 6 years, we have significantly reduced our gender pay gap. Disappointingly, however, we have seen a slight increase in the DfT group mean and median gender pay gap in 2021 to 2022, as well as increases in the mean GPG of DVLA and DfTc. The gender bonus gap (GBG) has also shifted in favour of men in most agencies compared with the previous year.
Structural factors continue to impact our GPG. In particular the DVLA, our largest agency, employs thousands of people in Swansea, predominantly in more junior grades, the majority of whom are women. Due to temporary changes in the workforce profile and working arrangements (and remuneration as a result) during the peak of the pandemic, the 2020 to 2021 data saw a larger than expected decrease to the DVLA GPG. As we come out of this period and return to more normal ways of working, we have subsequently seen an increase in the GPG this year, although still an overall downward trend.
Across the DfT group as a whole, roles which attract additional pay allowances, such as commercial contract management, engineering, and digital, are more likely to be occupied by men. Addressing the gender balance in these roles will require action to widen the talent pool and ensure women are attracted into these professions.
To continue to ensure the department is an employer of choice for women, our 2022 inclusion and wellbeing action plan includes a number of actions to address the GPG. These include: reviewing our senior civil servant talent pipeline to ensure talented women are identified and supported in their careers; refreshing our women’s health strategy which incorporates new menopause guidance; and continuing to design inclusive recruitment campaigns that mean we are attracting the best talent in the market.
Whilst we haven’t seen the decrease we hoped for in 2021 to 2022, I hope the efforts we are taking will ensure we continue to see an improving trajectory on GPG.  Across our department and agencies, we will seek to ensure all of our jobs and career opportunities, including the most senior and well-remunerated, are attractive to women. We will stay focussed on the future, and on targeted action to improve our GPG outcomes in the long term.
Bernadette Kelly, Permanent Secretary
The reporting period covers 1 April 2021 to 31 March 2022.
DfT has prepared this report as part of the legal requirement for public authorities to publish their gender pay gap (GPG) on an annual basis. The report outlines the department’s strategy to improve the GPG, as well as providing examples of some of the actions currently being undertaken.
Our report is also in line with the recommendations made from the Inclusive Data Taskforce report published in September 2021
In 2017, the government introduced world-leading legislation that made it statutory for organisations with 250 or more employees to report annually on their GPG.
Government departments are covered by the Equality Act 2010 (Specific Duties and Public Authorities) Regulations 2017, which came into force on 31 March 2017.
These regulations underpin the Public Sector Equality Duty and require relevant organisations to annually publish their GPG by 30 March. This includes the:
DfT comprises a core ministerial department and 4 executive agencies: DfTc, the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA), the Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency (DVSA), the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) and the Vehicle Certification Agency (VCA).
We employ around 16,000 staff and hundreds of non-payroll workers. We have a diverse workforce across Britain occupying a wide range of roles, from policy developers to critical frontline services such as the air, marine and rail accident investigation branches, driving examiners, coastguards, engineers and marine surveyors.
Across DfT, we have over 25 professions, which range across all grades including the Senior Civil Service (SCS). The GPG report 2022 is based on data drawn from across DfT group.
We are committed to meaningful and sustained efforts to continue to reduce our GPG. In July 2022, we launched our 3-year group DfT Diversity, Inclusion and Wellbeing strategy. The strategy focuses on delivering against four priorities to create and sustain a welcoming, healthy, and supportive workplace that can attract, develop and retain a diverse workforce and deliver better outcomes for all citizens. The priorities are:
GPG is a high-level snapshot of pay within an organisation and shows the difference in the average pay between all men and women in a workforce. If a workforce has a particularly large GPG, this can indicate there may be several issues to deal with, and the individual calculations may help to identify what those issues are.
In contrast, ‘equal pay’ is a more specific legal concept that deals with the pay differences between men and women carrying out comparable jobs. Men and women in comparable jobs are normally entitled to the same pay unless an employer can show differences in pay are justified – it is unlawful to pay people unequally because they are a man or a woman.
A GPG does not equate to the existence of an equal pay problem, albeit a GPG may be a trigger for further investigation about the reasons why the gap exists.
This report analyses our GPG figures in more detail, makes comparisons with our previous data where relevant and sets out what we are doing to close the gap at DfT.
This is the sixth year that DfT has published the GPG and the GBG figures.
To contextualise the report, we have included figures from 2017 to 2021 in our analysis.
The GPG data below shows the difference in average – mean and median – hourly pay between all men and women in the workforce. An hourly rate comparison is used to look at the pay gap as this allows for the consideration of both full-time and part-time workers.
The salary data used for the 2022 report is based on employee dates of 31 March 2022, as well as bonus pay between 1 April 2021 and 31 March 2022.
This year’s departmental GPG closely reflects years 2018 to 2020.
The GPG regulations require DfT to include its 4 executive agencies in the published figures. The data included in this report include DfTc, DVLA, DVSA, MCA and VCA.
The GBG is the difference between mean and median average bonus payments made to women and men, expressed as a percentage of men’s bonus earnings. In 2022, the GBG increased for both mean and median in favour of men as shown in Table 2.
The percentage of men and women receiving a bonus in the 12 months ending 31 March 2022 were:
These proportions are similar to the figures gathered in 2021.
We have included analysis of our 4 executive agencies and core ministerial department in the GBG figures below.
In 2022, the GBG increased for both mean and median in favour of men across all executive agencies as shown in Table 2.
The largest shift in the mean GBG was seen in DVSA (11.9pp increase), followed by DVLA (9.4% increase).
Overall, there are more men (54%) employed across DfT Group, except DVLA which has a higher proportion of women (60%) in their workforce. The majority of DVLA’s roles at grades AA to AO, are mostly taken up by women.
A higher proportion of the women working at DfT Group (45%) work in junior roles (AA to AO) in DfT Group compared to men (27%), this is similar to 2021. This means there are more women being paid at the lower hourly rates in DfT Group. Most of the workforce in DVLA and DVSA, the two largest organisations, are at grades AA to AO.
The percentage of women in the first (lower) quartile has increased from 52% to 66% and reduced in the second quartile from 52% to 39%. The proportions of women at the third and fourth (upper) quartile has stayed at the same level since 2021.
We have people working in a variety of job roles across the country. Many of these roles require technical or specialist expertise or significant prior experience for example as a mechanic, engineer, pilot or ship’s captain in fields that are in high demand and historically dominated by men. This is reflected across the UK. Many of these roles in DfT offer additional pay allowances due to market skill shortages, unsociable working hours or travel involved in the role. These roles reflect a wider pattern across the transport sector in the UK.
These factors may influence DfT’s ability to recruit and retain women as we are sourcing candidates from a narrow talent pool of experienced, technically skilled men.
When evaluating DfT technical roles, about 9 in 10 employees in these posts are male:
The potential effect on the GPG is substantial given how many specialist roles exist across the DfT group. If many new starters into these roles are men, they would join DfT on a higher salary compared to women in DfT who are in non-specialist roles at the equivalent grade.
The mean and median GBG shifted more toward favouring men this year compared to last year in all reported agencies. The largest shift in the mean was seen in DVSA (11.9pp increase), followed by DVLA (9.4% increase).  Both organisations have more men in senior roles. Previous analysis has found that higher monetary amounts tend to be awarded to those in higher grades.
DfT moved to an in-year reward bonus policy, called Local Recognition Awards (LRA) in 2018. The policy is designed to allow managers and staff to nominate and offer awards for a wide range of activities and behaviours to local business priorities. The policy allows managers and staff to nominate and offer awards for a wide range of activities and behaviours in line with local business priorities and the value of these is no longer linked to the grade of the recipient. However, year-on-year variations are still expected.
Regular equality monitoring is carried out to ensure that gender is not a statistically significant marker of the likelihood of receiving or values of awards. It is difficult to draw out exact causes of the change to the overall GBG as they are formed of combinations of actions in the different organisations.
The figures provided show the GBG in line with methodology set out by the Government Equalities Office (GEO)
As a department we have:
As our pay is underpinned by a robust job evaluation and grading system, pay alone will not narrow the DfT GPG. However, we do know that for historic reasons males are more likely to be higher in pay ranges than females. Therefore, we should and proactively do use annual pay awards to address the gender pay gap by targeting progression (accelerating staff towards the top of their pay bands) and range shortening (lowering the gaps between minimum and maximum salaries for each grade).
The 2021 public sector pay pause meant that there was no opportunity to target these areas in 2021 to 2022.?Looking forward, as part of our 2022 to 2023 Pay Awards we have prioritised both of these elements and indicative analysis as part of our equality impacts assessments indicates that we will see some further GPG narrowing as a result, particularly at SCS where flexibility to target highest performers, lower in grade led to additional payments to a significant number of female SCS.
We are committed to ensuring that women working at DfT are given equal opportunities. As part of our Diversity, Inclusion and Wellbeing strategy, we will take action to close the GPG under each of these headings:
We will also continue to leverage all opportunities within annual pay awards to move all staff up their pay ranges (where applicable) and shorten pay ranges.
We confirm that data reported by the Department for Transport is accurate and has been calculated according to the requirements and methodology set out in the Equality Act 2010 (Specific Duties and Public Authorities) Regulations 2017.
Where organisations have a headcount of less than 250 individuals, figures for bonus pay gaps and quartiles have been suppressed. ? ?2 ?3 ?4
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